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The Install Kali Linux on Chromebook: Tips and Tutorials
If you are using a Chromebook, you might have noticed that its operating system is based on the Linux kernel, but its features are not as advanced. Chrome OS is closed source software and does not accept many typical Linux commands.
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If you are looking to install a more advanced, security-focused Linux operating system, Kali Linux might be the system for you. Remember to back up all your files first, as your system will need to be powerwashed before you can install a new operating system, which means deleting all your personal data.
Before starting the installation of a new operating system …
As with other operating systems, you need to enter developer mode if you want to perform a more advanced action. It is a way of using an operating system that gives you more system privileges. It is disabled by default because it is not intended for everyday use. To activate developer mode:
- On your keyboard, hold down Esc and Refresh (the Chromebook-specific button), and then press the Power button. Do not release the first two buttons until you have pressed the On / Off button.
- If you’ve performed the first step correctly, the Chromebook will restart and boot into recovery mode. It will greet you with an “error message”, which is nothing to worry about. If you see the words “Chrome OS is missing or damaged. Please insert a recovery USB drive or SD card,” you have come to the right place. Just press Ctrl + D and continue.
- This shortcut will take you to the part where you need to toggle your “operating system check”. This serves as the opposite option to Developer Mode, meaning you need to turn off OS Verification to enable Developer Mode on a Chromebook.
- The next window will inform you that “operating system check” is disabled – again this will look like an error message even if you do everything correctly. You will no longer need your device to check the operating system every time you boot it, since you are installing another operating system. It also means that you have enabled developer mode. Press Ctrl + D again (or wait 30 seconds) to restart the system in said mode.
- After booting, if you come across the words “Preparing the system for developer mode.” It may take a little while. Do not turn off your computer until it has restarted, ”you’re ready to go. You will need to wait at least 10 minutes before developer mode is activated. Your Chrome OS will start up as if you’ve never turned on your Chromebook before.
Once you’ve enabled developer mode on your Chromebook, you can install another operating system. By default, the newly installed operating system and Chrome OS will both remain on your device, allowing you to switch between the two. The keyboard shortcuts that do this are Ctrl + Alt + Shift + F1 and Ctrl + Alt + Shift + F2. Here’s how to install another OS, Kali Linux being the case here:
- The first step is to download Crouton, which stands for “Chromium OS Universal Chroot (change root) Environment”. To download it, click here, then click the link next to its full name on Github. Crouton is free, as is Linux itself.
- After downloading Crouton, enter the Crosh terminal of your Chrome OS by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T.
- Crosh is the shell for Chrome OS, so it’s no surprise that “shell” is the first command to type.
- To start the download and subsequent installation of Kali Linux, copy the following line: sudo sh -e ~ / Downloads / crouton –r kali-rolling –t xfce Here, “xfce” is the desktop environment and “kali- rolling ”is the version of Kali Linux. You can modify them according to your needs.
- This may take a while, depending on the power of your hardware. If Kali Linux prompts you for a new UNIX username and password, do so and be sure to remember or write down the login information.
If you are not already on Kali Linux, you need to start it. To do this:
- Press Ctrl + Alt + T to restart the terminal.
- Type “shell” and enter “sudo startxfce4” to start Kali Linux.
This is not always successful, and it can lead to a crash caused by a bug. If you can’t switch back to Chrome OS, signing out should fix this problem. If you get an error stating “Owner of /tmp/.X11-unix must be set to root”, you need to delete an X-org file responsible for the bug. To do this:
- You must first start your Kali Linux without the graphical user interface (GUI) by starting the shell and copying this line to the terminal: sudo enter-chroot -n kali-rolling
- Type “sudo apt-get update” to update the repository.
- To remove the X-org file, enter “sudo apt remove xserver-xorg-legacy” then type “exit” to quit the chroot.
- Typing “sudo startxfce” should start Kali Linux successfully.
If you’re having trouble with your web browser, installing a new one in its place may be a good idea. Right click on the preinstalled one and click “Remove.” You can install Chromium quite easily instead of the old browser by doing the following:
- Open the Kali Linux terminal. It’s at the bottom of your desk.
- Enter “sudo apt-get install chromium” and type your UNIX password when prompted.
In search of privileges
If you need more system privileges on your Chromebook, Kali Linux might be right for you, especially since Linux is free and open-source. But remember that this operating system is mainly for penetration testing and not very convenient for daily work.
Which version of Linux is your favorite? Which version of Linux would you recommend for users who don’t need the features that Kali has to offer? Help others in the comments below.
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