Revitalizing Your Mac: A Step-by-Step Guide to Resetting NVRAM/PRAM

Experiencing odd behavior with your Mac can be frustrating, especially when software updates don’t seem to provide a solution. One method to troubleshoot and potentially solve these quirks could involve resetting your Mac’s NVRAM or PRAM. In this refreshed guide, we’ll explain why resetting these parameters might help, familiarize you with what NVRAM and PRAM are, and provide you step-by-step instructions to perform the reset successfully.

Understanding and Resetting Your Mac’s NVRAM/PRAM

If you’re encountering persistent issues like fans running non-stop, missing Wi-Fi networks, erratic display behavior, non-responsive Bluetooth, charging problems, or other unexpected system quirks, then you might benefit from resetting your Mac’s NVRAM or PRAM.

A quick anatomy lesson: RAM, or Random Access Memory, is the part of your computer system that stores active applications and processes for quick access. This differs from storage, such as your hard drive or SSD, which holds all your files and long-term data. Your Mac also uses a special kind of RAM to remember certain system settings such as the current time, display resolution, and volume levels—even when powered off. This is where PRAM (Parameter RAM) and NVRAM (non-volatile RAM) come into play.

PRAM and NVRAM store vital system settings in a small battery-backed area of memory that doesn’t get erased when you turn off your Mac. Things like the startup disk, video and display information, volume, and even time are preserved. Think of it as your Mac’s long-term memory for essential system information.

However, just like any set of data, PRAM/NVRAM can become corrupted, leading to an array of issues. If you’re a music producer, for example, resetting could help with problems recognizing startup disks or connecting devices such as MIDI controllers and audio interfaces. Below are some signs that a reset could help:

  • Improper starting up of your Mac
  • Invisibility of connected devices
  • Display issues or incorrect resolutions
  • External hard drives that won’t mount
  • Erratic Bluetooth functionality
  • Inaccurate system time
  • General sluggishness or strange behavior

You can check how your Mac is using its RAM through the Activity Monitor application (Go to Finder > Applications > Utilities > Activity Monitor). Here you can also view CPU and energy usage and sort applications and processes by impact.

If you suspect PRAM/NVRAM corruption, resetting can often be a straightforward solution. It’s worth noting that, for best results, a wired keyboard is recommended, as some wireless ones may not be responsive for NVRAM resets. Following are the instructions tailored for resetting PRAM and NVRAM on your Mac.

Step-by-Step Reset Procedure

To begin resetting NVRAM or PRAM:

  • Turn off your Mac.
  • Power on your Mac, and immediately press and hold the Option + Command (⌘) + P + R keys.
  • Continue holding the keys until you hear the startup sound for a second time or see the Apple logo appear and vanish twice if you’re using a newer Mac. This indicates a successful reset.

If using a wireless keyboard, or the method above does not work, you can also reset NVRAM with Terminal:

  • Close all applications
  • Open Terminal (Finder > Applications > Utilities > Terminal)
  • Type in sudo nvram -c and press Enter (you’ll be prompted for your administrator password)
  • Next, type sudo shutdown -r now to reboot your Mac immediately

In some rare cases, resetting the NVRAM might not resolve the issue, and further troubleshooting might be needed, which could potentially involve resetting the SMC (System Management Controller) or other solutions.


With this detailed guide, resetting your Mac’s NVRAM or PRAM should no longer be a mystery. The process can alleviate many common issues that arise with Macs over time, bringing back optimum performance and stability to your daily computing tasks.


Q: What exactly is the difference between PRAM and NVRAM on a Mac?

A: PRAM and NVRAM are similar in function but NVRAM is a more modern incarnation that stores the same type of system information more reliably.

Q: How often should I reset my Mac’s NVRAM or PRAM?

A: Resetting should only be done when troubleshooting specific issues and isn’t needed routinely.

This instructional article, updated for current technology, is designed to assist and enrich your experience with your Mac and ensure that you have the necessary tools to keep it running smoothly. Remember to share this knowledge with your friends and family to help them get the best out of their Apple devices!

Editorial Staff
Editorial Staff
The Bollyinside editorial staff is made up of tech experts with more than 10 years of experience Led by Sumit Chauhan. We started in 2014 and now Bollyinside is a leading tech resource, offering everything from product reviews and tech guides to marketing tips. Think of us as your go-to tech encyclopedia!


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