Cybersecurity in the digital age has been compromised

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Cybercrime costs over $10 million every minute. It is projected to set the world back some $10.5 trillion annually by 2025. Data has become the gold of the digital economy revolution considering there will be 200 zettabytes of it by 2025.

Victims range from the often innocent and vulnerable to banks, multinational corporations, and powerful elites. Bangladesh is no stranger to cybercrime either.

And so, cyber-security has emerged as a critical issue affecting anyone with a digital presence. Massive data leaks, identity theft and extortion are just a few of the many problems plaguing the digital space.

That is why it is important to understand one’s digital presence now more than ever. The first step is familiarizing oneself with the hacking methods of cyber-criminals. Here are some of the most common hacking techniques to be careful of, what can be done to protect against such threats, and the measures Bangladesh is taking to securely ensure the digital dream.

Before getting into the most common hacking techniques, it is important to keep in mind that not all hackers are bad. While there are many malicious minds creating havoc, there are just as many digital guardians working tirelessly to help humanity for the best. The easiest way to tell between the good and bad is to differentiate between white hat and black hat hackers.

Most common hacking techniques to be careful of and how to stay protected

White hat hackers are the good guys; they are ethical computer security experts specialized in finding faults in systems that may expose your valuable data. Penetration testing is one of several ways white hat hackers can test and ensure the safety of a company or individual’s information system. They can be found employed among the ranks of Google, Microsoft, and Apple with the mission of keeping the digital space safe for everyone.

Black hat hackers are the bad guys; they are the ones stealing money and identities, leaking sensitive personal data, and facilitating illegal activities — a few crimes topping the startlingly long list. Black hat hackers break into information networks using an arsenal of attacks, with malicious intentions. They can destroy businesses and ruin lives; according to IBM, “the average cost of a data breach was $3.86 million in 2020.”

Remaining anonymous while committing crimes is their specialty, and they can be found all around the world. While the list for hacking methods is a long one, here’s a look at some of the most common hacking techniques used by black hat hackers to better understand how to stay alert and protected:

Malware – Perhaps the most common, malware is the umbrella term used to describe any unwanted or harmful programs on a system. These can range from trojans, worms, adware, spyware, viruses and ransomware. Malware starts working once someone has downloaded a life, opened an attachment or clicked a link. It is then programmed to seize control of a system (desktop, laptop or mobile) and monitor actions to ultimately steal personal data. In 2019, 93.6%of observed malware was polymorphic, meaning it could change its code to avoid detection.The best way to stay protected against malware is to exercise caution when dealing with email messages, attachments and downloading files. If you must, make sure to have a reliable anti-virus software installed.
Bait and Switch – One of the more dangerous forms of hacking, the attackers’ strategy is purchasing advertising space on websites to fool people into clicking on them. When a victim clicks on the link, they are redirected to a page that looks authentic but is programmed to automatically run malicious code and infect the victim’s system with an overdose of malware. Once infected, the hacker has unbound access to a system and its information. The best way to stay safe in this situation is to be extremely mindful of clicking on links or downloading free content. On the internet, if something seems too good to be true, it probably is.
Cookie Theft – A sweet name for a potentially severe problem. Cookies are the files stored by websites visited by an information system. Their purpose is to help the websites visited observe and track visit behavior to deliver more personalized and pleasant user experience. This becomes a problem when hackers get a hold of this information as this can lead to identity theft.
The hackers will have access to and use authenticated login information, passwords and mannerisms of their victims. Although many websites must now ask permission to accept cookies from users, businesses can take actions like ensuring web developers use the newest and most updated development techniques, as well as to update encryption protection on a regular basis. DoS or DDoS – Denial of Service or Distributed Denial of Service is an older technique used to crash a system or network by flooding them with repetitive tasks, data requests, and login attempts among others. DoS/DDoS attacks can vary in size and strength. On the more advanced end, methods like Buffer Overflow attacks, which fill online form fields with overwhelming data so they freeze or crash, allows hacks to gain access to personal information. According to Cisco, “by 2023, the total number of DDoS attacks worldwide will be 15.4 million.”
Similarly to bait and switch, to stay safe, practice caution when downloading files or opening unfamiliar email attachments. Updated anti-malware software or applications can also help prevent these types of attacks.

Eavesdropping – This technique is more passive and tuned for the long game. Hackers, often gaining access through unsecured networks, find and listen in on a network. They observe and record whatever important data possible using methods like packet sniffing and interception of data transmissions. The success of this hack is dependent mainly on the skill of the hacker not being detected. VPNs are the best option here for situations where accessing free Wi-Fi is an emergency. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) can be implemented by corporate networks to stay protected against this form of hack.
Keylogging – This method is simple as it is old. Keylogging involves using software that can record keystrokes and sequences from a keyboard to create log files on a system. The log files created can contain highly sensitive information like passwords, bank account and login information. Some more advanced hacks have involved logging mouse clicks and movements.
It should be noted that nearly 80% of all keyloggers are not detectable by antivirus software or firewalls. The best measure against this is often seen in banking and e-commerce through virtual (on-screen) keyboards. These encrypt text or keys inputted so it becomes difficult for keyloggers to make sense of the stolen data. Ransomware – This is a type of malware that finds its way into a system through a virus, trojan or worm. Once infected, the ransomware will compromise personal data and deny access unless a ransom is paid to the hacker. These days many ransomware hackers are demanding payment in bitcoin. Some extreme cases have seen victims having to pay millions of dollars to restore access.
The US has seen an increase in ransomware attacks and recently had to pay hackers to regain access to a critical US pipeline. In 2019, the healthcare industry lost nearly $25 billion to ransomware attacks. Having reliable and updated anti-virus software or applications from trusted industry experts is the best protection once again in this scenario.

Fake WAP – One of the simpler but most frequently used hacks, Fake wireless access points or “evil twin” access points take advantage of the unsuspecting and in need. A hacker sets up a “free” fake wireless access point network using some software and a wireless network card in an area where people are often looking to access free Wi-Fi. Once connected to the Fake WAP, hackers can easily see data like passwords and login information being entered by their victim. To be safe from this, always exercise extreme caution when using any free Wi-Fi.
Using quality VPN services is a smart choice in case you find yourself having to use or access free Wi-Fi. Try to ensure using a variety of unique but memorable passwords for all digital profiles. Social Engineering – This technique is quite possibly the most widely-used yet least-understood on the list. This technique involves mind games, a strong understanding of psychology and the ability to exploit the human condition.
Instead of outright stealing, hackers exercise a variety of techniques like using fear, trust, sympathy, greed, laziness and ego to get victims to willingly provide their information. This scenario can trick even the best into falling prey. Digital hygiene and appropriate education will be the most effective tools for combating such abstract challenges moving forward.

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