In its simplest form, the Casimir effect is an interesting interaction between two uncharged and perfectly conductive plates held a short distance from each other, usually less than a micron. Conventionally, the only attractive force acting between these plates must be gravity. But it is extremely small for small scale objects. In 1948, theorist Hendrik Casimir predicted the existence of the now eponymous force at the scale of a few hundred piconewtons when the plates are held within 100 nm of each other. HBG Casimir, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. 51,793 (1948); HBG Casimir, J. Chim. Phys. 46, 407 (1949). https://doi.org/10.1051/jcp/1949460407 Seen experimentally several times, 2–72. MJ Sparnaay, Physica 24, 751 (1958). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-8914(58)80090-73. SK Lamoreaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.54. U. Mohideen, A. Roy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4549 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.45495. HB Chan et al., Science 291, 1941 …
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