Shockwaves associated with rapid coronal mass ejections (CMEs) accelerate solar energy particles (SEP) over a long duration, gradual events that present hazards to manned spaceflight and near-Earth technology assets , but the source of the plasma accelerated by CME shocks is still debated. Here, we use the multi-messenger observations from the Observatory of the Heliophysical System to identify the plasma confined to the foot points of the hot and central loops of the active region 11944 as a source of major progressive SEP events in January 2014. We show that the elemental composition signature spectroscopically detected at the foot points explains the measurements made by particle counting techniques near the Earth. Our results locate the elemental fractionation process at the top of the chromosphere. The plasma confined closest to this region, where the intensity of the coronary magnetic field is high (a few hundred Gauss), develops the signature of the SEP composition. This source material is continuously released from magnetic confinement and accelerated as SEP after Class M, C and X eruptions.
One of the central objectives of heliophysics is to understand the origins of solar activity and to predict its…
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